This concept is normative in nature meaning

This concept is normative in nature meaning that it involves the distribution of resources to different areas according to the amount needed and not on equal basis. It is also concerned with the patterns in which cost and benefits are being distributed among different areas of a society.

To achieve equity in an area, resources as well as benefits must be distributed unequally that is more to the poor and less to the rich. An action like this should be done because the poor lack sources for income as well as protection hence providing less funds for their schools than the rich. This indicates that most of the poor people largely depend on different resources from the government in order to earn a living. User charges and cost recovery measures in the Sub-Saharan countries are seen by some people to be promoting equity in the education system because they improve the way resources are allocated in all the education institutions (World Bank Policy Research Report, 2001). User charges and cost recovery measures also lead to the effective contribution of resources. This in schools is usually achieved when the value that users place on educational services equal the cost of resources used up in the production of those services. Pupils as well as parents tend to value education, by so doing they put pressure on the school, teachers and the stuff to maintain quality. This increases accountability of education institutions hence the easy detection of problems to do with learning. Accountability in education enhances equity. The proper functioning of the user charges and cost recovery results into meeting and maintain the resource requirements for the education system. Insituations when the government is not incapable of providing needed resources the school from the user fees can generate its own needed resources and solve any problem at hand. User charges often ensure the provision of quality leaning through the provision of books and other important learning materials, improved school planning and management, better utilization of teaching staff and reduced unit cost in construction for those who enroll. The vulnerable groups of society can also enroll by paying fees through in kind contribution to the construction of the school and even maintenance of school materials. Therefore, the equity benefits in this instance results from the use of resources in ways that benefit the poorest. Such benefits manifest through improvements in the provision of education in rural areas as well quality of educational services. User charges and cost benefits in the Sub-Saharan countries have been criticised because the vulnerable groups in such societies have been found not to be benefiting from the resources that are said to be distributed on equity. According to (Kelly, 1999) disadvantaged groups of society comprise of the poor, people that are handicapped, the girls or females and those that live in rural areas. With the user charges in the system, children from the poor families may not enroll because these families will have to look at how they will make indirect costs such as transportation, school meals, school provisions and sports as well as direct costs such as school fees and boarding fees. Besides that poor children also lack personal material and are unable to buy materials that are sold at school. With high levels of poverty children cannot be allowed to go to school because they are a source of income in their families especially in areas of farm work and selling. Those that are allowed to go to school usually go on empty stomachs. This affects them negatively in academic performance thus causing inefficiencies in the school system. In addition the school curriculum as well as the culture of learning act as barriers in the educational endeavors of these children because it is too advanced for them to understand and does not relate to their everyday activities. The other dimension is that this type of educational provision does not encompass areas such as rural areas. Education provision in rural areas is poorer than in urban areas (Central Statistics Office, 1997), because most of the teachers sent to teach in these areas are untrained, this in turn leads to poor quality in education;the school buildings and sanitation are so poor such that pupils get less motivated to attend lessons; materials and other supplies are not adequately distributed hence preventing pupils from acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills.

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